Scientific Evidence

Vitamin Formulas are based on proven research in the most respected medical publications, including the National Eye Institute’s Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), the Lutein Antioxidant Supplement Trial (LAST) and others. Flimsy research or mere opinions are not the method used in the creation of our supplements.

AREDS

AREDS is an acronym that stands for Age-Related Eye Disease Study. The study was completed in completed in October 2001 by the National Eye Institute, part of the United States National Institutes of Health. Institutes of Health. Results from the AREDS showed that high levels of antioxidants and zinc significantly reduce the risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its associated vision loss. These same nutrients had no significant effect on the development or progression of cataract.

AREDS2 and LAST

AREDS2 is an acronym that stands for Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2. LAST is an acronym that stands for Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial.

While AREDS was the first study demonstrating benefit against this retinal eye disease, it failed to demonstrate improvement in vision. AREDS2 (AREDS 2), the second major study performed by the U.S. National Eye Institute, showed that lutein and zeaxanthin were more effective than beta-carotene and that daily zinc levels of 25 mg and 80 mg were not significantly different in benefit. Other studies, including the Lutein Antioxidant Supplement Trial, have demonstrated vision improvement. Finally, work involving both Lutein and Zeaxanthin, molecules known as carotenoids, have shown not only vision improvement but also a healthier macular appearance and improvement in Macular Pigment Optical Density (MPOD).

Vitamin Science is one of the only companies in the world to offer several formulas that are based on the newest AREDS 2 research, including Premium AREDS 2 Supplements and Basic AREDS 2 Supplements.

ADDITIONAL RESEARCH

1. National Advisory Eye Council. Report of the Retinal Diseases Panel: Vision Research: A National Plan, 1994-1998. Bethesda, Md: United States Department of Health and Human Services: 1993. Publication NIH 93-3186.

2.   Klaver, C.C.W., Vingerling, J.R. and de Jong, P.T.V.M. (1998). Age-Specific Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Visual Impairment in an Older Population. Archives of Ophthalmology. 116:  653-658.

3.   Attebo, K., Mitchell, P., and Smith W. (1996) Visual acuity and the causes of visual loss in Australia: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 103: 357-364

>4.   Friedman, D.S., O’Colmain, B.J., Munoz, B., Tomany, S.C., McCarty, C., de Jong, P.T., Nemesure, B., Mitchell, P. and Kempen, J. (2004) Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States. Archives of  Ophthalmology 122(4): 564-572.

5.  Gragoudas, E.S., Adamis, A.P., Cunningham, E.T.Jr., Feinsod, M., Guyer, D.R. (2004) Pegaptanib for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. New England Journal of Medicine  351: 2805 – 2816.

6.   Seddon, J.M., Ajani, U.A., Sperduto, R.D., Hiller, R., Blair, N., Burton, T.C., Farber, M.D., Gragoudas, E.S., Haller, J., Miller, D.T. et al. (1994) Dietary caroteoids, vitamins A, C and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group JAMA 272: 1413-1420

7.  Beatty, S., Koh, H-H, Henson, D. AND Boulton, M. (2000) The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Survey Ophthalmol 45: 115-134

8. Newsome, D.A., Swartz, M., Leone, N.C., Elston, R.C. and Miller, E. (1998) Oral zinc in macular degeneration. Archives of  Ophthalmology 106: 192-198.

9.  Hall, N.F. and Gale, C. R. (2002) Prevention of age related macular degeneration. British Medical Journal 325: 1-2

10.   Age-related Eye Disease Study Group (2001) AREDS Report 8. A  Randomized, Palcebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of High-Dose Supplementation with Vitamins C and E, Beta Carotene and Zinc for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision Loss. Archives of Ophthalmology 119: 1417-1436

11.  Khachik, F., Bernstein, P.S. and Garland, D.L. (1997) Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visuals Science  38 (9): 1802-1811

12. EDCCS Eye Disease Case Control Study (1993) Antioxidant status and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group Archives of Ophthalmology 111: 104-109

13.   Richer, S., Stiles, W., Statkute, L., Pulido, J., Frankowski, J., Rudy, D., Pei, K., Tsipursky, M. and Nyland, J. (2004) Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial) Optometry 75: 216-230

14.  Gale, C.R., Hall, N.F., Phillips, D.I.W. and Martyn, C. N. (2003) Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 44: 2461-2465

15.   Mares-Perlman, J.A., Fisher, A.I., Klein, R., Palta, M., Block, G., Millen, A.E. and Wright, J.D. (2001)  Lutein and Zeaanthin in the Diet and Serum and Their Relation to Age-related Maculopathy in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American Journal of Ophthalmology 153 (5): 424-432

16.  Moeller, S.M., Parekh, N., Tinker, L., Ritenbaugh, C., Blodi, B., Wallace, R.B. and  Mares, J.A. (2006) Associations between Intermediate Age-related macular Degeneration and Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) Archives of Ophthalmology 124: 1151-1162

17.  Thomson, L.R., Toyoda, Y., Delori, F.C., Garnett, K.M., Wong, Z-Y., Nichols, C.R., Cheng, K.M., Craft, N.E. and Dorey, C.K. (2002) Long Term Supplementation with Zeaxacthin Reduces Photoreceptor Death in Light-damaged Japanese Quail. Experimental Eye Research 75: 529-542

18.  Valensi, P.E., Behar, A., de Champvallins, M.M., Attalah, M., Boulakia, F.C. and Attali, J.R. (1996) Effects of Purified micronized Flavonoid Fraction on capillary Filtration in diabetic Patients. Diabetic Medicine 13: 882-888.

19. Voloboueva, L.A., Liu, J., Suh, J.H. Ames, B.N. and Miller, S.S. (2005) ( R) -aplha-lipoic acid protects retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative damage. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 46 (11): 4302-4310

20.  Sternberg, P. Jr., Davidson, P.C., Jones, D.P., Hagen, T.M., Reed, R.L. and Drews-Botsch, C. (1993) protection of retinal pigment epithelium from oxidative injury by glutathione and precursors. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science  34 (13): 3661-3668.

21.  Crary, E.J. and McCarty, M.F. (1984) Potential applications for high-dose nutritional antioxidants. Medical Hypotheses 13 (1): 77-98.

22.  McCarty, M.F. (2005) The putative therapeutic value of high-dose selenium in proliferative retinopathies may reflect down-regulation of VEGF production by the hypoxic retina. Medical Hypotheses. 64 (1): 159-161.

23.  Albanes, D., Heinonen, O.P., Taylor, P.R., Virtamo, J., Edwards, B.K., Rautalahti, M., Hartman, A.M., Palmegren, J., Freedman, L.S., Haapakoski, J., Barrett, M.J., Pietinen, P., Malila, N., Tala, E., Lippo, K., Salomaa, E.R., Tangrea, J.A., Teppo, L., Askin, F.B., Taskinen, E., Erozan, Y., Greenwald, P. and Huttunen, J.K. (1996) Alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: Effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. Journal of National Cancer Institute 88: 1560-1570.

24.  Redlich, C.A., Blaner, W.S., Van Bennekum, A.M., Chung, J.S., Clever, S.L., Holm, C.T. and Cullen, M.R. (1998) Effect of supplementation with beta-carotene and vitamin A on lung nutrient levels. Cancer Epidemiological Biomarkers 7: 211-214.

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